Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill fungi, bacteria, insects, plant disease, slugs and weeds, among others. Insecticides are a type of pesticides that target and kill insects specifically. Some insecticide includes snail bait, ant killer, mosquito killer and wasp killer.
Mortality and morbidity rates in agricultural production have remained consistently high throughout the world. Modern farming relies on many chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides and crop preservatives to produce and preserve an abundance of high-quality food. Humans have developed means to combat unwanted insects from eating or destroying farm produce and this practice has been in play since early 7000BC. Some cultures relied on the practice of planting during certain phases of the moon. Practices like crop rotation were applied in the crude days of agriculture in other to reduce the population of pests. People picked bugs off plants by hands and made noise to ward off grasshoppers. Chemicals were also used earlier on. The crushed petals of pyrethrum (a type of chrysanthemum), sulfur, and arsenic were used in the Middle East, Rome, and China, respectively.
The global pesticides and insecticides market was worth $55.7 billion in 2019, with indications that it will grow to almost $73.9 billion by 2027 at a CAGR of 4.5%. That same year, China (13.4%), the United States (11.4%), Germany (11.1%), France (11%) and India (9.5%) were the biggest exporters of pesticides while Africa, on the other hand, imported pesticides worth over $18 billion.
In Africa, makeshift pesticides have been used for over eight decades. They were presumably introduced to the continent by colonial masters. In Nigeria, for example, pesticides are vital tools for reducing crop damage and ensuring sustainable food production all year round. For example, without the use of pesticides in rice and cocoa production, about 45% of the crop yield would be lost to pests.
However, despite global acceptance and utilization, bio-pesticide penetration remains low, particularly in Nigeria. Pesticides and insecticides are not sufficiently used in Nigeria, and as the nation is slowly giving more attention to the agricultural sector, the market is gradually growing. This makes the pesticide and insecticide production business a business with high prospects in the country. If you’re considering an agrobusiness, the pesticide and insecticide business is a suitable option. Here is a guide to help you get started.
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What Are Pesticides And Insecticides?
Pesticides are chemical substances that kill pests. In other words, a pesticide is a chemical or a biological agent such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial, or disinfectant that prevents, hinders or kills pests. Insecticides are pesticides that target and kill insects specifically. Some insecticides include snail bait, ant killer, and wasp killer. Insecticides are toxic substances used principally to control pests that infest plants or to eliminate disease-carrying insects.
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Business Opportunities In The Pesticide And Insecticide Production Business In Nigeria And Across The World
1). Pesticide Manufacturing:
Producing pesticide on a small or large-scale demands knowledge about the process and the right technology used in the formulation. Pesticide manufacturing is one of the most profitable chemical business ventures and it puts quite a number of people in business.
2). Distribution, Wholesale And Retail Services:
For businesspersons who cannot afford a full-fledged pesticide and/or insecticide production business, distribution and sales of packaged pesticides and insecticides in small bits makes a great business opportunity.
3). Fumigation And Pest Control Services:
Large farm owners prefer to leave their pest attack services to expert fumigators. Equipped with the right devices such as sprayers and suitable insecticides and pesticides, fumigators make a living off the pest control services.
Facts And Benefits Of Pesticides And Pesticides
- Pesticides and insecticides help farmers protect crops from insects and other pests.
- They are used for controlling pests and plant disease vectors.
- Elemental sulfur was the first known pesticide.
- Pesticide application reduces waterborne and insect-transmitted diseases.
- They reduce the stress of hand-weeding.
- Baking soda and canola oil are used in the production of bio-pesticides.
- The particular pesticides used to kill the eggs of insects are called ovicides.
- The EPA reports that over 70 million pounds of pesticides per annum do not fall on their intended targets.
- China, the United States, Germany, France and India contribute the largest share to global pesticide production.
- People have been developing several biological and manual methods of fighting pests right from 7000 B.C.
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Types Of Pesticides
Pesticides can be classified using three different categories.
1). Types Of Pests They Kill:
This category is based on the target of the pesticide. They include:
- Insecticides – insects (mosquitoes, cockroaches)
- Herbicides – plants (grasshoppers, wasp, beetle)
- Rodenticides – rodents
- Bactericides – bacteria
- Fungicides – fungi
- Larvicides – larvae
2). How Biodegradable They Are:
Biodegradable Pesticides: The biodegradable types are those which can be easily broken down by microbes and other living things into harmless compounds.
Persistent Pesticides: The persistent ones are those usually take months or years to break down.
3). Their Chemical Components:
Organophosphates are mostly insecticides. They affect the nervous system and disrupt the enzyme that regulates the neurotransmitter.
Carbamate is similar to organophosphorus pesticides but the enzyme effects are reversible.
Organochlorine insecticides were commonly used before, but because of their health and environmental effects, they are less commonly used.
Pyrethroids are a synthetic version of pyrethrin, a naturally occurring pesticide found in chrysanthemums. They are developed to maximize their stability in the environment.
The sulfonylureas herbicides have been commercialized for weed control. They include pyrithiobac-sodium, cyclosulfamuron, bispyribac-sodium, terbacil, sulfometuron-methyl, azimsulfuron, and amidosulfuron, among others.
Biopesticides are pesticides gotten from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria, etc.
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How To Start A Pesticide And Insecticide Production Business In Nigeria
1). Write A Business Plan:
Starting a business with a comprehensive business plan gets you started on the right foot. Identify your specific interest in the pesticide and insecticide industry. Identify your target market, business location, budget, goals, etc.
2). Assemble All Required Materials:
To produce pesticides or insecticides, you should identify all materials and resources needed. These include containers for packaging, big containers or bowls for mixture, stirring rods, a solvent (Kerosene, water, powder), bottles, eucalyptus oil, camphor, colourings of your choice, and fragrance of your choice, among other materials.
3). Create Your Insecticides or Pesticides:
There is no single method for all pesticides and insecticides but the following steps are some of the basics of producing pesticides and insecticides:
- Pour the kerosene into the container, and put the powdered camphor into the bowl of kerosene and stir. Some people soak the camphor in a little quantity of kerosene for 3 hours or more.
- Put Eucalyptus into the mix and stir.
- Add the killer and stir.
- Add as much fragrance as necessary into the mix.
- Add colour.
Put a few drops of formalin (it acts as a preservative) into the insecticide.
4). Registration, Packaging And marketing:
Packaging speaks volume of the brand. Materials for packaging include plastic, pet container, the container for the liquid insecticide and printed paper or racks in the case of powder. After packaging, you have to register your brand with the Corporate Affairs Commission and register your products with the NAFDAC. You could as well employ a couple of delivery personnel to distribute your products to stalls, supermarkets and major markets.
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Challenges Of Starting An Insecticide And Pesticide Production Business
- Producers are at a very high risk of diseases due to exposure to agrochemicals
- Insufficient training and safety methods among producers of pesticides and insecticides.
- Circulation of fake pesticides in the market.
- The residue of pesticides is not easily washed off.
- High market competition
- Pesticides and insecticides pose a danger to human health, especially children.
- Pesticides can contaminate the environment.
- Difficulty in getting quality materials for the production of pesticides and insecticides.
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To Sum It Up
The pesticides and insecticides production business is open to all classes of businesspersons because it requires very little capital. The pesticides and insecticides production business in Nigeria can be a lucrative and profitable venture to start-up, due to its vast market demand and on your ability to build a wide network. If you’re looking for a lucrative business to venture into, the pesticides and insecticides production business in Nigeria is a great option to explore.
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