How To Start A Lucrative Shrimp Farming Business In Nigeria: The Complete Guide
The global demand for shrimps is on the rise because of its delicious taste, growing food culture, high proteins, and vitamins contents. But there has been a shortfall in meeting this demand because more than 50% of the shrimps sold worldwide are obtained from the wild ocean. And so, goes a long way to show that many countries around the world have not embraced shrimp farming as they ought to.
The global demand for shrimps presently is estimated to be about 4.75 million metric tons annually. China and Thailand are the world’s leading producers of shrimps, accounting for nearly 75% of the global shrimp production. In 2018, Thailand was the biggest shrimp producer with shrimp production of 2.59 million metric tons.
Nigeria presently produces over 12,000 metric tons of shrimps annually, but this is far below its production capacity because the country has a long coastline of 853 km and there is a long fringe of unutilized beach in the Niger Delta that could be utilized for coastal shrimp culture without destroying the mangrove.
The Niger Delta region in Nigeria alone is richly endowed with freshwater, brackish water and marine ecosystems. There are many under-utilized borrow pits, lakes, springs, creeks, and rivers all of which are rich in biodiversity that could be used for shrimp farming.
Interestingly, shrimps and prawns used to be Nigeria’s third-largest agricultural export. Production is however expected to grow exponentially in years ahead as oil pollution drastically reduces in the Niger Delta region.
With a vast number of natural resources in Nigeria and many places around the world to mass-produce shrimps and with shrimps being the most lucrative seafood venture globally, producing over $18billion in turnover annually, starting shrimp farming in Nigeria is a great route to take.
What Is A Shrimp?
Shrimps are marine crustaceans that are found at the bottom of the sea in most environments globally. They are invertebrates, which means that shrimps do not have a backbones. Instead, shrimps have a hard exoskeleton (the shell of the shrimp).
What Is Shrimp Farming?
Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in either a marine or freshwater environment, producing shrimps or prawns (crustaceans of the groups Caridea or Dendrobranchiata) for human consumption.
Business Opportunity Of Shrimps Farming In Nigeria
1). Source Of Food:
Shrimps are mostly cultivated and harvested as a source of food and recipe for many delicacies in many places around the world.
2). Source Of Animal Feeds:
The back and other by-products of shrimps are processed and used in the production of animal feeds.
3). Production Of Food Supplements:
Due to its high protein and vitamin content, Shrimps are usually used in the production of food supplements.
Facts And Benefits Of Shrimp Farming
- There are thousands of shrimp species around the world
- Shrimps are omnivorous.
- Shrimps are an important part of their ecosystem.
- Shrimps contain a cancer-fighting mineral
- One billion pounds of shrimps are eaten every year by Americans
- Over 4.7 billion pounds of shrimps are produced every single year.
- A shrimp can average about 6 inches long, while the longest ever recorded was 16 inches.
- Some shrimps can live for as long as six and a half years, while some only live about a year or so
- There are 16 different stages of life found in shrimps from eggs to full adult.
- Every shrimp is born a male and then become females as they mature.
- Shrimps are high in cholesterol
- Shrimps are high in protein
- Shrimps are low in calories
- Shrimps are the world’s most consumed seafood
- Shrimps are high in vitamins and minerals
Types of Shrimps
They are over a thousand different species of shrimps, some of which are;
1). WhiteLeg Shrimps:
Whiteleg shrimps, also known as Pacific white shrimps or king prawns, are a variety of prawns of the eastern Pacific Ocean commonly caught or farmed for food.
2). Cherry Shrimps:
This is a freshwater shrimp from Taiwan, which is commonly kept in aquariums. The natural colouration of the shrimp is green-brown. There is a wide range of colours such as red, yellow, orange, green, blue, violet, black, etc.
3). Pandalus Borealis:
This is a species of caridean shrimp found in cold parts of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific Oceans; although the latter population now often is regarded as a separate species.
How To Start Shrimp Farming In Nigeria: Step By Step Guide
1). Site Selection And Pond Design:
Select a location to dig a pond specifically for raising freshwater shrimps. Although most farmers would dig a pond similar to a pond used for raising channel catfish, you can also use large fish tanks and swimming pools.
Water containers can also be used; however, a natural pond yields the best shrimp production for commercial farming.
A good flow of freshwater is necessary for the shrimps. It is also important to supply them with enough oxygen.
2). Stocking The Juvenile Shrimp:
Before you stock your juvenile shrimps, check the pond’s water for insects and larva that might eat the young shrimps. And use an organic method for removing these insects and larva.
If you’ve used water other than well water, make sure there aren’t any other types of fishes in the water, especially bass, green sunfish, and bluegills.
If there are fishes in the pond, get rid of them before stocking juvenile shrimp. These kinds of fish are predators for the shrimp.
Slowly replace the water which the juvenile shrimps were transported in with the water from the pond to avoid a sudden change in conditions killing the shrimps.
At recommended density, your juvenile prawns stocked into grow-out ponds can find food themselves naturally from organisms growing in the pond. Start feeding when the shrimp size exceeds 5 grams or greater. Commercial fish feed for channel catfish is suitable for shrimp.
Challenges Of Shrimp Farming in Nigeria
The major issues affecting shrimp farming in Nigeria are;
- Lack of knowledge of Shrimp farming
- Oil spillage
- Environmental degradation and pollution
- Lack of tools for mechanized shrimps farming
- Lack of storage Materials
- Lack of adequate government assistance
- Lack of easy access to the international market by most shrimps farmers in Nigeria
- Poor funding for research activities
- Lack of capital for large scale production
- Lack of skilled manpower
To Sum It Up
Shrimp farming in Nigeria, Africa, or anywhere around the world is a highly lucrative business opportunity to take advantage of, especially since it is an 18 billion dollars a year venture.
With Nigeria not producing far lesser than its production capacity and the fact that artificial shrimp farming has not been exploited, this gives investors a huge opportunity to venture into the most lucrative seafood farming business in the world.
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